Improvisation is the act of creating or performing spontaneously without preparation. In the context of jazz, improvisation is a fundamental aspect of the music, with musicians spontaneously creating melodies, harmonies, and rhythms during performances. Jazz improvisation often involves reinterpreting existing melodies (such as standards or original compositions) and exploring new musical ideas through spontaneous expression. Musicians often rely on their knowledge of scales, chords, and musical vocabulary to improvise creatively and interactively within the ensemble.

Outside of the jazz genre, improvisation is also prevalent in various other forms of music, theater, dance, and visual arts. In music, genres such as blues, rock, funk, and folk incorporate improvisation to varying degrees, allowing musicians to express themselves freely and explore new musical possibilities. In theater and dance, improvisation involves spontaneous creation and performance of scenes, dialogue, movements, or choreography, often driven by collaboration and improvisational techniques. In visual arts, improvisation may involve spontaneous drawing, painting, or sculpting, allowing artists to explore new techniques, ideas, and forms of expression without predetermined plans or structures.

Overall, improvisation transcends artistic disciplines and serves as a dynamic and creative process that fosters spontaneity, innovation, and expression across various forms of artistic expression.